Preventivna psihijatrija

Preventivno-psihijatrijska aktivnost je, u godinama nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, nastala kao posljedica potrebe, očigledno prepoznate u periodu uspona socijalnog modela u psihijatriji, da se psihijatrija približi korisnicima medicinskih usluga, odnosno da se preventivno djeluje na onom mjestu na kome, posmatrno iz socijalno – etiološkog ugla, i dolazi do manifestovanja poremećaja – u zajednici. Rezultat ovakvog pristupa je psihijatrijska praksa u kojoj stručno osoblje izlazi van zidova duševnih bolnica i potom se, kako kaže Kecmanović „upoznaje sa životnom situacijom potencijalnih i tzv. deklarisanih pacijenata“ što se odvija „uz blisku saradnju sa relevantnim socijalnim službama i institucijama koje su odgovorne za donošenje odluka od opšteg interesa“ (Kecmanović, 1978, str. 123). Preventivna psihijatrija, kako dalje navodi Kecmanović, predstavlja „dopunu izvorno medicinskog javnozdravstvenim modelom“ (Kecmanović, 1978, str. 123). Miković, slično, primjećuje da je duševno zdravlje „oblast u kojoj se zdravstvena i socijalna zaštita u najvećem stepenu međusobno prepliću i prožimaju, jer se većina problema duševnog zdravlja, od njihove uzročnosti, preko prevencije, terapije i rehabilitacijskih postupaka, uvijek mora posmatrati i sa socijalnog aspekta“ (Miković, 2007, str. 193). Pojašnjavajući koncept komunalne psihologije, Havelka navodi da ovaj pristup ne slijedi medicinski model duševnog zdravlja i bolesti, već se usmjerava na „podsticanje osobne i grupne kompetentnosti“ (Havelka, 2002, str. 20).

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