Socijalna pomoć

Prema hrvatskom autoru, Zoranu Šućuru “zadatak socijalne pomoći jeste da održi određeni nivo potrošnje domaćinstva u slučajevima gubitka prihoda, te pomoći pojedincima i porodicama da izađu na kraj sa opasnotima siromaštva i marginalizacije” (Šućur, 2004:21). Ovaj autor naglašava da pravo na socijalnu pomoć predstavlja »zadnje utočište« ili »donju sigurnosnu mrežu« ispod koje ne bi smio pasti nijedan građanin. Dakle, prema svojoj prirodi, materijalna (socijalna) pomoć treba da ostvari dvije osnovne funkcije: izbjeći krajnje stanje materijalne oskudice priječiti marginalizaciju ili socijalnu isključenost (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi; 2005:286).

Na osnovu tipologije socijalne pomoći, koja je izvedena iz Gospe Esping – Andersenove analize država blagostanja (1991) želimo ponuditi pregled najinteresantnijih modela socijalne pomoći.

Zadatak socijalne pomoći jeste da podstakne održanje nivoa potrošnje domaćinstva u slučajevima gubitka prihoda, kao i pružanje pomoći pojedincima ili domaćinstvima da izađu na kraj s opasnostima siromaštva i socijalne marginalizacije (Šućur, 2004 :21). Prava socijalne pomoći predstavljaju “zadnje utočište” ili “donju sigurnosnu mrežu “, ispod koje ne bi smio pasti nijedan građanin.

Prema Goug-u i saradnicima, svi programi socijalne pomoći se mogu razvrstati u tri kategorije(Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:287):

  1. opšta socijalna pomoć
  2. kategorijalna socijalna pomoć
  3. vezana socijalna pomoć

U ovoj podjeli, kategorijalna socijalna pomoć odgovara pomoći u specifičnim okolnostima, a vezana pomoć se odnosi na različite tipove potreba. Naime, veliki dio materijalnih davanja korisnici troše sredstva na neke potrebe za koje je moguće crpjeti prava i iz drugih izvora. Npr. u mnogim zemljama najznačajniji vid vezana pomoći je stambena naknada, jer stambeni troškovi čine najveći udio u porodicama sa nižim primanjima (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:287).[1]

Suštinski, u svim raspravama i debatama o socijalnoj pomoći i njenom transferu prema potencijalnim korisnicima mora se napraviti distinkcija između dvije grupe korisnika. U prvu grupu spadaju oni kojima je potražnja i primanje socijalne pomoći racionalni izbor, jer imaju procjene da tako olakšavaju sebi život i svjesno se “štede” od moguće participacije na tržištu rada. Drugu, korisnika koji su zaista usljed određenih životnih situacija zaista marginalizovani i čine stvarnu kritičnu masu na koju treba usmjeriti transfere. Identifikacija takvih korisnika zavisi prije svega od pitanja kako doći do odgovarajućeg modela socijalne pomoći? Ukoliko socijalnu pomoć tretiramo kao oblik podsticaja siromašnima, što smo više puta napomenuli, onda je neophodno da se i sam fenomen siromaštva drugačije doživi. Naime, ukoliko siromaštvo shvatamo kao problem siromašnih i prema toj pojavi opredjeljujemo javne politike tako da problem zadržimo u društveno prihvatljivoj “zoni”, do nekog značajnijeg pomaka u rješavanju siromaštva se neće doći. U suprotnom, ako siromaštvo prihvatimo kao društvenu nejednakost, onda moramo biti spremni da stvaramo javne politike, a samim ti i odgovarajući model socijalne pomoći kroz proces strukturalne rekonstrukcije društva i društvenih odnosa.

Ključ u rješavanju pitanja adekvatnog modela socijalne pomoći jeste njeno povezivanje sa mogućnostima siromašnih da budu uključeni na tržište rada. Svrha socijalne pomoći i drugih socijalnih prestacija mora voditi ka unapređenju njihovih sposobnosti da se u jednom trenutku pridruže u procesima rada. U pitanju je tzv. “aktivacija korisnika” usluga kroz parolu “radom do blagostanja” podrazumijeva oslanjanje pojedinca na sopstvene snage. U tom cilju je neophodno prije svege redefinisanje prava i odgovornosti, preispitivanje institucionalnog odnosa prema pojedincima, porodicama i društvenim grupama u današnjim društvenim okvirima.

U Velikoj Britaniji, usled karakteristika socijalne politike koju Esping – Anderesen svrstava u konzervativne modele država blagostanja, koristi se takozvana institucionalna socijalna pomoć, koja se dodjeljuje pojedincima koji svoje potrebe nisu u mogućnosti zadovoljiti na tržištu, kao ni u okviru svoje porodice. Takva socijalna pomoć je u nadležnosti posebnih administrativnih insitucija koje vrše provjeru stanja korisnika i potpuno je odvojena od usluga socijalnog rada. Pružanje novčane pomoći, prema zakonodavstvu Velike Britanije, nije u nadležnosti poslova socijalnih radnika, već više administrativna aktivnost (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:298). Ovakav vid pomoći je uslovljen i tradicijom britanskog društva, gdje određene društvene grupe imaju jasno mjesto u sistemu društvene stratifikacije, bez obzira na materijalne mogućnosti. Ideološki profil i sastav britanske vlade nijesu opredjeljujući za sudbinu javnih politika, jer se njihovo kreiranje uvijek odvija po formi centralističkog koncepta. Prosta maksima koja glasi:… “svi putevi vode u Dauning Street”…, odnosno adresu na kojoj žive i rade premijer i ministar finansija, jasno upućuje na karakter kreiranja britanskih javnih politika (Almond i saradnici, 2008:223). Dolaskom na vlast Laburističke političke partije i Tony Blair-a, od 1997. godine, makar deklarativno,[2] počinje da se forsira ideja da “siromašnima treba podsticaj, a ne milostinja”. U duhu pomenute parole uvedene su i određenje političke mjere (program savjetovanja za samohrane roditelje, osnivanje departmana socijalno isključene, itd.) Politika Laburista bazirala se na tome da siromašnima treba omogućiti priliku za obrazovanjem, sticanjem radnog iskustva ili pomoć za djecu, uz postojanje pritiska da ukoliko se ove politike ne iskoriste, siromašni dovode sebe u opasnot da izgube pravo na pomoć (Haralambos, Holborn, 2001:345:346). Upravo taj elemenat prisile se kritikovao kao jedan od najspornijih u vođenju politika prema siromašnima. Na žalost, jedna od prvih konkretnih mjera je bila smanjenje novčanog iznosa za podršku jednoroditeljskim porodica pa je i uzrokovala ozbiljne sumnje u buduće ishode politika borbe protiv siromaštva. Danas, preovladava mišljenje da bez obzira kako je postavljena politika, ista neće postići pozitivne efekte ukoliko se ne izdvaja više sredstava za one koji, iz ovih ili onih razloga, ne mogu raditi (Haralambos, Holborn, 2001:346).

Francuska država blagostanja je ostvarila “osrednji” uspjeh u raspodjeljivanju rezultata poslijeratnog buma i prosperiteta na svoje građane. Francuska država blagostanja najefikasniju politiku vodi u pogledu plasiranja socijalnih transfera ka svojim građanima. Visina i opseg socijalnih davanja slični su davanjima u Njemačkoj i Danskoj, ali su veći nego što je to slučaj u Velikoj  Britaniji i daleko veći nego u SAD. Efikasnost socijalnih programa se može vidjeti po nivou siromaštva za koji postoje procjene da je nešto veći nego u Švedskoj ali niži nego u Velikoj Britaniji i SAD (Almond i saradnici, 2008:274)

Holandija i skandinavske zemlje (ne računajući Norvešku) koriste rezidualni model koji razvija  univerzalni pristup u dodjeli socijalne pomoći, sa vrlo visokim naknadama. Za razliku od prakse u Velikoj Britaniji, u ovim zemljama socijalna pomoć je isključiva nadležnost službi socijalnog rada odnosno socijalnih radnika i dodjeljuje se prema strogo preciziranim kriterijumima i to na osnovu pricipa individualnosti i građanskog statusa pojedinaca (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:298). U Holandiji je 2004. godine došlo do izmjena Zakona o radu i socijalnoj pomoći sa ciljem veće aktivacije učesnika na legalnom tržištu rada. Ideja je da lokalni organi sami odlučuju o obliku neophodne pomoći do momenta nalaska posla, pri čemu se insistira na čitavom nizu mjera aktivacije. Danska je svoju “aktivnu socijalnu politiku” proširila na sve starosne grupe[3] (Vuković, 2011:41). Švedska vodi ofanzivnu socijalnu politiku u kojoj se ostvarivanje prava na socijalnu pomoć smatra pasivnom mjerom. Institucije na nacionalnom nivou regulišu širok spektar pitanja iz domena socijalne polike, dok se lokalnim samoupravama prepušta odlučivanje o raspodjeli socijalne pomoći i ostalih materijalnih prestacija prema licima neintegrisanim na tržištu rada.

Model decentralizovane, neki autori će reći još i diskrecione socijalne pomoći (Puljiz, Šućur) koristi se u Norveškoj, Švajcarskoj i Austriji. U ovim zemljama relativno mali broj ljudi traži socijalnu pomoć, usled problema stigmatizacije, intervencija socijalnih radnika i visoke zaposlenosti pripadnika muškog pola. Visina socijalne pomoći je nadprosječna i ulazi u djelokrug poslova socijalnog rada (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:298). Interesantan primjer socijalne pomoći koristi se u Švajcarskoj, gdje se forsira koncept »kontra-doprinosa« (counter-contributcion). Prema ovom konceptu, korisnik socijalne pomoći dužan je da svojom društvenom aktivnošću oduži državi dodijeljenu pomoć. Polazi se od pretpostavke da ovakav koncept jača socijalnu integraciji korisnika usluga, a kao nedostatak se navodi način na koji bi korisnik bio »natjeran« da se oduži državi. (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:300). U Austriji se od koristi tzv. minimalni dohodak umjesto socijalne pomoći, ali suština se svodi na to da se  materijalna pomoć pruža onim licima koja svoje teško materijalno stanje mogu dokazati kroz definisane procedure. Ostvarivanje prava na “minimalac” je u pokrajinskoj nadležnosti, pri čemu postoje varijacije u pogledu stepena strogosti donešenih propisa.

U Sjedinjem Američkim Državama koristi se model državne javne pomoći, u okviru kojeg se pruža širok skup naknada hijerarhiski poređanih na osnovu stepena stigmatizacije i prihvatljivosti (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi 2005:298). Inače, insistira se na kako provjeri, tako i podsticaju radnih motiva korisika. Procedura dodjele beneficija je prilično stroga, a visina iznosa manja nego u evropskim zemljama. Radikalne promjere u socijalnoj zaštiti SAD-a počinju od 1996. godine kroz implementaciju Zakona PRWORA[4]. Primaoci socijalne pomoći imaju obavezu da se zaposle, obave pripravnički staž, stručnu obuku od 12 mjeseci, prekvalifikaciju ili dokvalifikaciju, a moraju da pruže usluge njege djece onim licima koja se, kao prethodni korisnici, zaposle (Vuković, 2005).

Selektivni model socijalne države primjenjuju Australija i Novi Zeland, i to kroz postojanje nekoliko nacionalnih programa u okviru kojih se tretiraju tačno određene kategorije stanovništva. Dodjela socijalne pomoći podrazumijeva prethodnu provjere resursa dohotka i imovine, (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi,  2005:298). U Australiji se veća prednost daje socijalnim uslugama koje se ne transferišu u novčanom iznosu, pa se poslednjih nekoliko godina aktuelizovala tema o povećanju iznosa za socijalnu pomoć i fleksibilnijim uslovima za ostvarivanje pomenutog prava.

Japan koristi model centralizovane diskrecione pomoći, predstavlja neku vrstu mješavine britanskog i austrijskog model (kombinacija decentralizovane i centralizovane raspodjele novčanih davanja). Postoji nacionalno regulisan sistem socijalne pomoći, koji priznaje specifičnosti i razlike određenih lokanih područja s obzirom na troškove života (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:298). Inače, ukupna socijalna potrošnja u Japanu raste, jer demografski trendovi starenja donose duži životni vijek. Japansko društvo stari, pa se povećava potražnja za socijalnim davanjima, a politika raspodjele istih predstavlja važnu i poželjnu temu u političkim kampanjama i debatama (Almond i saradnici, 2008:375).

I na kraju, model rudimentarne socijalne pomoći koji se primjenjuje u južnoevropskim zemljama i Turskoj, koji prevashodno štiti kategorije starih lica i radno nesposobnih. Provjera prihoda nije stroga, naknade su vrlo niske, i postoji posebna diskreciona pomoć koju pružaju lokalne zajednice (Puljiz, Šućur, i drugi, 2005:299).

[1] Bez obzira na kriterijume klasifikacije socijalne pomoći, moramo imati na umu da socijalna pomoć, ukoliko se uopšte dodjeljuje, poželjno je da posjeduje sljedeće karakteristike: podsticanje prikrivenih potencijala korisnika; afirmacija  radnih motiva korisnika; ne mora se isključivo dodjeljivati u novčanom iznosu; jasna veza sa drugim beneficijama koje se dodjeljuju korisnicima; privremena, tj. dok se u saradnji sa korisnikom ne pronađe drugo rešenje (Janković, 2013).

[2] Vrijedno je pomenuti da je u Velikoj Britaniji od 1996. godine implementirano niz “New Deal – Welfare” programa za mlade. Obuhvaćena su lica od 18 do 26 godina, koja su bez posla najmanje 6 mjeseci. U prvoj fazi je predviđeno intenzivno pružanje pomoći radi pronalaženja nesubvencioniranog radnog mjesta. Za one koji se u tom periodu ne zaposle slijedi drugi krug pomoći u vidu savjetovanja i subvencija zarada za poslodavce u trajanju od 6 mjeseci. Korisnik programa je obavezan da jedan dan u nedelji posveti daljem obrazovanju (Vuković, 2011:40).

[3] Zakonom o aktivnoj socijalnoj politici  iz 1998. godine, (Lov om aktiv socialpoliti, 1998) uređena su prava obaveze i mjere za korisnike socijalne pomoći (Vukovič, 2011:41).

[4] Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act – PRWOA, je zakon o usaglašavanju lične odgovornosti i radnih mogućnosti. Predlagači zakona kao njegove prednosti ističu: usmjeravanje primaoca socijalne pomoći ka zapošljavanju mjerama prekvalifikacije i dokvalifikacije, priliv dodatnih sredstava u fondove za brigu o djeci i medicinske zaštite i obezbjeđivanja sredstava pomoći saveznim državama koje pokažu pozitivne rezultate (Vuković, 2011:45).

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