Politika rodne ravnopravnosti u EU

Države članice EU vode proaktivnu politiku na polju postizanju pune rodne ravnopravnosti. Ravnopravnost je jedna od pet vrijednosti na kojima počiva Evropska unija (EU). Ona se obavezala da će se u svim svojim aktivnostima zalagati za ravnopravnost žena i muškaraca Na nivou Evropske unije doneto je mnoštvo dokumenta o rodnoj ravnopravnosti. Tako su članice Evropske unije 2000. godine u Nici usvojile Povelju o fundamentalnim pravima u Evropskoj uniji, u kojoj je između ostalog definisano da se načelo ravnopravnosti polova uvodi u sva područja i aktivnosti politike (gender mainstreaming). Strateški dokument EU koji definiše politiku aktivnog delovanja u cilju rodne ravnopravnosti predstavlja Strategija Evropske unije za ravnopravnost između žena i muškaraca od 2010. do 2015. godine.

Neravnopravnost muškaraca i žena predstavlja kršenje osnovnih prava. Posljedice toga jesu veliki gubici u ekonomiji i nedovoljno korišćenje talenata. S druge strane, unapređivanjem rodne ravnopravnosti može se postići ekonomska i poslovna dobit. Da bi se postigli ciljevi strategije Evropa 2020, to jest pametan, održivi i inkluzivan razvoj, potrebno je više i efikasnije koristiti potencijal i talenat žena. Rodne uloge i dalje utiču na donošenje najvažnijih ličnih odluka: u vezi sa obrazovanjem, karijerom, organizacijom posla, porodicom i rađanjem. Ove odluke imaju uticaja na ekonomiju i društvo. Stoga, u interesu svih nas jeste da se i ženama i muškarcima, jednako i stvarno, omogući pravo na izbor tokom različitih faza njihovog života.. Povelja o osnovnim pravima obezbjeđuje takvu ravnopravnost i zabranjuje diskriminaciju na osnovu pola. U znak obilježavanja 15-godišnjice Deklaracije i Platforme za akciju, usvojene na Svetskoj konferenciji Ujedinjenih nacija (UN) o ženama u Pekingu, i 30-godišnjice Konvencije UN o eliminaciji svih oblika diskriminacije nad ženama, Evropska komisija (Komisija) je u martu 2010. godine usvojila Povelju o ženama, kojom potvrđuje svoju posvećenost rodnoj ravnopravnosti i jačanju rodne perspektive u svim svojim politikama.

U svrhu postizanja pune ravnopravnosti države članice EU promovišu: jednako pravo na ekonomsku nezavisnost, žensko preduzetništvo i samozapošljavanje, rodnu ravnopravnost u spoljašnjim aktivnostima, ravnopravnost prilikom donošenja odluka, dostojanstvo, integritet i iskorjenjivanje rodno zasnovanog nasilja.

Bibliografija:

Savjet Evrope, (2000). “Strategija ravnopravnosti polova od 2001 do 2005 godine”, Brisel.

Evropska komisija, (2010).  “Strategija za ravnopravnost žena i muškaraca od 2010. do 2015. godine”, Brisel.

Direktiva Evropskog parlamenta i Savjeta (2010). “O primjeni načela jednakog postupanja prema muškarcima i ženama koji se bave djelatnošću u okviru samozapošljavanja te o ukidanju Direktive Savjeta 86/613/EEZ”, Brisel.

Direktiva Evropskog parlamenta i Savjeta (2006). “O provjeri načela jednakih mogućnosti i jednakog tretmana muškaraca i žena u pitanjima zapošljavanja i obavljanja zanimanja”, Brisel.

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