Kultura siromaštva

Ideju kulturne reprodukcije siromaštva promoviše promoviše američki antropolog i sociolog, Oscar Lewis (1914-1970). Prema ovom autoru,  siromaštvo se bazira na tzv. ideji kulture siromaštva, koju je izložio krajem 1950-tih godina (Lewis, 1959.,1961.,1966., prema Haralambos, Holbron, 2002:319). Prema tom konceptu ljudi uče norme, vjerovanja i vrijednosti  koja ohrabruju i podržavaju siromaštvo (Leon-Guerrero, 2005:232). Siromaštvo je produkt socijalizacije siromašne djece, a u tom procesu roditelji prenose vrijednosti i vjerovanja na svoju djecu.  Ovako postavljen koncept implicira da zajednice siromašnih osim svoje geografske zasebnosti imaju svoje specifične vrijednosti i norme koje opredjeljuju nacrt života. Elementi takvog životnog stila javljaju se na tri nivoa, nivou pojedinca, njegove porodice i lokalne zajednice[1]. Prema Lewisu (1969.) kultura siromaštva je “odgovor siromašnih na njihov marginalni položaj u klasno raslojenom i individulanom društvu”. Međutim, kultura siromaštva očigledno nije samo odgovor društvu, već je karakteriše i mogućnost trajnog obnavljanja. Dakle, Lewis u konceptu kulture siromaštva problem marginalnog položaja dijela populacije postavlja kao klasno pitanje (Briggs, 2002). Drugim riječima, kultura siromaštva je ujedno i vid proizvođenja i proizvod, jer se usljed ciklične logike odnosi na ponavljanje istih ili sličnih obrazaca ponašanja među porodicama sa malim prihodima i niskim stepenom obrazovanja kroz generacije (Janković, 2012:398).

[1] Na nivou pojedinca glavni pokazatelji su osjećaj marginalizacije, bespomoćnosti, zavisnoti i inferiornosti. Na nivou porodice, slobodne veze, razvedeni brakovi, odlasci muževa, i domaćinstva na čijem je čelu žena. Na nivou zajednice odsustvo participacije u glavnim institucijama šireg društva (Lewis, 1961).

5,446 thoughts on “Kultura siromaštva”

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