Socijalna zaštita

Pojam i značenje

U terminološkom smislu socijalna zaštita u evropskim zemljama obuhvata niz socijalnih usluga transferisanih prema segmentu populacije za koji postoji procjena da se nalazi u stanju određenog socijalnog rizika (materijalna oskudica, starost, invalidnost, bolest, itd.). Osim socijalnih usluga, socijalna zaštita nudi i materijalne podsticaje (socijalna pomoć, socijalna penzija, jednokratna pomoć) korisnicima usluga u cilju prevazilaženja položaja u kom su se našli. Srpka autorka Drenka Vuković smatra da: “u osnovi sistema socijalne zaštite leži organizovana djelatnost društva i odgovarajućih institucija (javnih službi), za preduzimanje mjera za otklanjanje uzroka i ublažavanje posledica takvog stanja i situacija u kojima postoji vjerovatnoća ili su se već ispoljile posebne teškoće u zadovoljenju osnovnih životnih potreba pojedinca, društvenih grupa i zajednice u cjelini” (Vuković, 2005:261). Ovdje se misli na širok spektar potencijalnih ili aktuelnih situacija koje otežavaju adekvatno funkcionisanje pojedinca i zadovoljenje njegovih potreba, a načini njihovog rješavanja su sadržani razlitičitim vidovima organizovane djelatnosti državnih (socijalnih) službi.

Postojanje socijalnih službi za pružanje pomoći građanima jeste jedna od osnovih tekovina države blagostanja, odnosno posledica nastanka treće generacije ljudskih prava – socijalnih prava. Prema autoru Vladimiru Puljizu, socijalna zaštita obuhvata:…”mjere koje preduzima država s ciljem zaštite od glavnih životnih rizika s kojima se suočavaju pojedinci i njihove porodice. Radi se o rizicima kao što su bolest, materinstvo, nesreća, smrt, starost, nezaposlenost, nesigurnost, itd. Socijalna zaštita obuhvata i usluge koje se sve više afirmišu kao dimenzije moderne socijalne politike” (Puljiz, 2005:11). Države EU socijalnu zaštitu tetiraju kao skup programa koji imaju za cilj da umanje posledice društveno priznatih rizika, kao što su: starost, bolest, invalidnost, nezaposlenost itd. (Pandžić, 2012:176). Sam pojam je relativno novijeg datuma u upotrebi kod država EU i predstavlja supstrat za pojmove koji su se prethodno koristili ili se u određenom značenju koriste još uvijek (socijalna pomoć, socijalno osiguranje, socijalna sigurnost).

U istočnoevropskim zemljama pod uticajem socijalističke ideologije, socijalna sigurnost je obuhvatala penzijsko-invalidsko osiguranje, zdravstevno osiguranje, osiguranje za slučaj nezaposlenosti i politiku podrške porodici i djeci. U tom smislu se socijalna sigurnost tretirala kao širi oblast od socijalne zaštite. Vremenom, neke od bivših socijalističkih država su postepeno prihvatale zapadni model prema kom se socijalna zaštita tretira kao oblast sa većom sadržajnom pokrivenošću od socijalne sigurnosti. Usljed takve perspektive, socijalna sigurnost se tretira kao sistem održavanja dohotka i zadovoljavanja osnovnih egzistencijalnih potreba.

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