Porodična politika država Evropske unije

Porodična politika u Evropskoj uniji ima duge korijene svog postojanja. Tradicionalna porodična politika dugo vremena je bila obilježena pronatalizmom, vremenom ona se mijenja u pravcu proaktivnih mjera u cilju poboljšanja položaja žena i kao i u pravcu ostvarivanja ugodnog ambijenta za razvoj djeteta. Države članice Evropske unije imaju izgrađen sistem mjera sadržanih u nacionalnim zakonodavstvima kojima se regulišu “politike podrške porodici i djeci”. Širok spektar socijalnih tranfera, prestacija, beneficija, olakšica, stambena i obrazovna politika, usmjereni su na jačanje uloge porodice u državama EU.

Proces demografskih promjena država članica EU odrazio se i prirodu porodičnih politika. U nekim državama članicama možemo govoriti i o dramatičnom tokom socio-demografskih trendova. Prije svega to se odnosi na pad stope fertiliteta kao i na promjenu structure savremene porodice. Trendovi promjena u konceptu braka, odlaganje ulaska u bračni odnosi, kao i izlazak žene na tržište rada i njena participacija u javnom diskursu uslovili su radikalno drugačije pristupe od nekadašnje tradicionalne porodične politike. Takođe, procesi savremenih migracija oblikovali su broj i strukturu doseljeničkih porodica, koja se bitno razlikuje od domicilnog stanovništa (Vuković, 2011:225).

Socijalne beneficije usmjerene su mahom na podršku porodicama sa djecom, pa se pripadnici različitih kategorija djece javljaju kao posebne ciljne grupe na koje su usmjerene mjere porodične politike. Države članice EU razvija socijalne beneficije i usluge u skladu sa ekonomskim kapacitetima i aktuelnim socio-demografskim tendovima. Tako na primjer, Estonija, Finska, Mađarska, Irska i Velika Britanija obezbjeđuju univerzalne beneficije za svu djecu, uključujući i prvo dijete. Ovakav pristup motivisan je jasnim društvenim koncenzusom koji nalaže shvatanje su djeca “javno dobro” i budućnost evropskih država. U Francuskoj postoji restriktivniji pristup pa su benefecije dostupne od drugog djeteta pa na dalje, dok se u Grčkoj tek od četvrtog djeteta pa na dalje predviđa se raspodjela socijalnih prestacija. Starosna granica u pogledu trajanja prava na ostvarivanje beneficija je razlitičita od države do države. U Njemačkoj i Mađarskoj je 18 godina, a u Francuskoj je 20 godina (pod uslovom da dječija primanja ne premašuju 55% minimalne zarade) (EUROSTAT, 2010). U najvećem broju država članica starosna granica je do 17 godina dok najnižu starosnu granicu imaju Litvanija (12 godina) i Češka (14 godin) (OECD, 2010).

Mjere usmjerene na samohrane roditelje obuhvataju niz socijalnih beneficija počev od prava na osnovu materinstva, preko plaćenog odsustva pa sve do mjera pomoći samohranim roditeljima. Pravo po osnovu materinstva obuhvata medicinsku zaštitu i brigu u periodu odsustva sa posla usljed rođenja djeteta. Plaćeno odsustvo je pravo koje mogu koristiti oba roditelja, a u najvećem broju država postoji mogućnost posebnog odsustva radi njege djeteta.

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