„ZDRAVA“ porodica

Ukoliko zdravu porodicu odredimo kao porodičnu zajednicu koja je u potpunosti lišena konflikata, razmirica i tenzija između članova, te koja, bez ikakve strukture, dozvoljava svakom od članova da beskompromisno slijedi vlastite potrebe, postaće evidentno da takav oblik zajednice postoji tek kao idealni tip.

U stvarnosti,  porodica je relativno trajna primarna društvena grupa u kojoj se, uz manje ili veće nesuglasice, usaglašavaju lične i razvone potrebe njenih članova. Autori koji su se bavili ovim pitanjem su, stoga, nastojali da, preko različitih koncepata, opišu one porodične obrasce koji se, više ili manje, približavaju idealnom tipu zdrave porodične sredine.  U nastojanju da dođe do definicije zdrave porodice, Pejović  konstatuje da je porodica „najintimnija ljudska grupa, koja predstavlja jedinstvo čovjekovih bioloških, psiholoških, moralnih i socijalnih dimenizija“ (Pejović, 1982, str. 29). Ovakva definicija ukazuje na to da se, u porodičnoj intimi, manifestuju različiti aspekti čovjekovog bivstvovanja: biološki, psihološki i socijalni. Pejović dalje, opisujući ideal zdrave porodice, navodi da u porodicama u kojima su interpersonalni odnosi skladni, svaka ličnost ima pravo na sopstvene posebnosti, te da (u takvim porodicama) niko ne daje sebi „pravo ni privilegiju“ izvan prihvatanja i poštovanja drugih članova porodične zajednice i samokritičkog uvažavanja sebe (Pejović, 1982). Autor, na istom mjestu, konstatuje i da je, u zdravijim porodicama, ličnost djeteta poštovana od rođenja, kao i da se u njima ni jedna ličnost ne potcjenjuje, zapostavlja ili eksploatiše. U zdravijim porodicama „nema zabranjenih osjećanja, stavova i razmišljanja“ a istovremeno postoji lična odgovornost članova za svoju slobodu, stavove i osjećanja  (Pejović, 1982, str. 30). Pejović konstatuje i da su interpersonalni odnosi, u takvim porodicama, esencijalno značajni za održavanje homeostaze, budući da je svaki član porodice u poziciji da pronalađe mogućnost za samopotvrđivanje i savladavanje teškoća.

Govoreći o vrijednostima koje se njeguju unutar skladnih porodica, Pejović ističe da se u ovakvim porodicama visoko cijene solidarnost, zajedništvo i osjećaj pripadnosti grupi. Očigledno je da ovaj autor,  nudeći model skladne porodice, zapravo opisuje grupu u kojoj, kao oblik regulisanja međusobnih odnosa, dominira onaj model koji je u socijalnoj psihologiji označen kao demokratičan. (Rot, 2006). Rezimirajući Pejovićeve stavove po analiziranom pitanju, konstatovaćemo da ovaj autor dovodi u vezu „zdravlje“ porodične sredine sa vrijednostima kao što su: odgovornost, kohezija, solidarnost, egalitarizam, demokratičnost, sloboda u interkaciji članova porodice, međusobno poštovanje i uzajamno praćenje potreba članova zajednice,  te snažna identifikacija članova porodice sa porodičnom zajednicom. Milosavljević navodi da mentalno zdravlje porodice „nije stvar sumiranja pojedinačnih elemenata“ već je „pre svega u vezi sa stepenom mentalnog zdravlja interpersonalnih odnosa“ (Milosavljević P. , 1978, str. 28). Autor dodaje i da bi ovi odnosi, ako su zdravi, trebalo da omogućavaju psihički i socijalni razvoj, kao i izgradnju očekivanih i posebnih recipročnih uloga u okviru porodice (Milosavljević P. , 1978). Ova definicija, očigledno, podrazumijeva da zdrava porodična dinamika znači sinhronizovanost u komunikaciji između članova porodice, kao i kapacitet komunikacione mreže porodice da se adaptira i djeluje suportivno prilikom razvoja njenih članova. Slično, Milosavljević navodi i da kod „poremećene grupe“ nastaje „učaurivanje pojedinih članova u određenu poziciju, što i drugim članovima grupe onemogućava podelu i promenu pozicija, pa se svara nezadovoljavajuća grupna atmosfera“ (Milosavljević P. , 1978, str. 28). Da se zaključiti da je, prema Milosavljeviću, zdravlje porodične sredine u neposrednoj vezi sa fleksibilnošću i adaptibilnišću samog sistema, dok je poremećaj tijesno vezan sa njegovom rigidnošću. I ovaj stav smo imali na umu kada smo koncipirali upitnik za identifikaciju vektora u porodici.

 

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